Brute Neighbors

Return to the Thoreau homepage. The separate sections of "Brute Neighbors" are really quite independent of each other and could easily stand alone. Except for the first section, each part tells about animals in or around the pond.

The chapter begins with a short one-scene play, really a farce or a spoof. I have always wonder what those who felt that Thoreau had no sense of humor were able to make of it. In this spoof, Thoreau is the hermit, and Ellery Channing, the poet. I can imagine the two of them taking great fun in acting out these parts to each other, with gravely exaggerated behavior.

The next short section talks about animals that Thoreau commonly saw at his hut or at a spring, half a mile north of his hut, where he could get cool water during the summer.

Then Thoreau describes the often anthologized "Battle of the Ants." I found my students very puzzled because they could not recognize Thoreau's irony and sarcasm in describing this as if it were a human war. Thoreau is playing a very close game in his description. Attacking the American Revolution as foolish and wrong-headed would not win him much approval from the people of Concord! He has already reported (in "The Bean-Field") how they love to drum up support for the Mexican War with cannon and bands. However, by comparing the battle at Concord to the battle the ants are fighting and by claiming that the ants are more heroic, he can make his point and perhaps even have the others agree with him. After all, the ant battle really involves more wounded and dead doesn't it? There really aren't any hirelings (soldiers who fought for the British for pay during the revolution, often from Germany) in this battle are there? This battle will really be more important to the ants than Bunker Hill, won't it? Thoreau does furnish clues throughout that his purpose under the surface is different from his purpose on the surface. One telling statement is "I was myself excited somewhat even as if they had been men. The more you think of it, the less the difference." A conclusion that one could draw from Thoreau's description is that human wars are no more logical or sensible than those of ants.

Thoreau next tells about dogs and cats wandering in or living in the woods and also about a strange cat with "wings."

At the end, he describes the hunters at the pond trying to shoot a loon, his chase of one on the pond, and the fall flight of the ducks.

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Sometimes I had a companion in my fishing, who came through the village to my house from the other side of the town, and the catching of the dinner was as much a social exercise as the eating of it. The chapter begins normally enough, although it does not connect back to "Higher Laws." Was this chapter moved or was "Higher Laws" added later?
Hermit. I wonder what the world is doing now. I have not heard so much as a locust over the sweet-fern these three hours. The pigeons are all asleep upon their roosts, -- no flutter from them. Was that a farmer's noon horn which sounded from beyond the woods just now? The hands are coming in to boiled salt beef and cider and Indian bread. Why will men worry themselves so? He that does not eat need not work. I wonder how much they have reaped. Who would live there where a body can never think for the barking of Bose? And oh, the housekeeping! to keep bright the devil's door-knobs, and scour his tubs this bright day! Better not keep a house. Say, some hollow tree; and then for morning calls and dinner-parties! Only a woodpecker tapping. Oh, they swarm; the sun is too warm there; they are born too far into life for me. I have water from the spring, and a loaf of brown bread on the shelf. -- Hark! I hear a rustling of the leaves. Is it some ill-fed village hound yielding to the instinct of the chase? or the lost pig which is said to be in these woods, whose tracks I saw after the rain? It comes on apace; my sumachs and sweetbriers tremble. -- Eh, Mr. Poet, is it you? How do you like the world today? In this passage, Thoreau is making fun of himself and his philosophy, deliberately making himself look at foolish. Notice that the language sounds unnatural and artificial. Notice also that, rather than enjoying the woods, the Hermit is seen to be worried about what everyone else is up to. His philosophy is mocked by turning the expression, "He that does not work does not eat" backwards, but he is still interested in results of that work (the harvest and later the dinner-parties). He prefers living in a hollow tree to polishing doorknobs. He seems to be anxious about swarms of people who are too far along for him.
Poet. See those clouds; how they hang! That's the greatest thing I have seen today. There's nothing like it in old paintings, nothing like it in foreign lands, -- unless when we were off the coast of Spain. That's a true Mediterranean sky. I thought, as I have my living to get, and have not eaten today, that I might go a-fishing. That's the true industry for poets. It is the only trade I have learned. Come, let's along. More foolishness in making a fuss about the clouds. Also note that fishing is the only industry that the Poet has learned. Harding reports that Channing had made a trip along the Spanish coast.
Hermit. I cannot resist. My brown bread will soon be gone. I will go with you gladly soon, but I am just concluding a serious meditation. I think that I am near the end of it. Leave me alone, then, for a while. But that we may not be delayed, you shall be digging the bait meanwhile. Angleworms are rarely to be met with in these parts, where the soil was never fattened with manure; the race is nearly extinct. The sport of digging the bait is nearly equal to that of catching the fish, when one's appetite is not too keen; and this you may have all to yourself today. I would advise you to set in the spade down yonder among the groundnuts, where you see the johnswort waving. I think that I may warrant you one worm to every three sods you turn up, if you look well in among the roots of the grass, as if you were weeding. Or, if you choose to go farther, it will not be unwise, for I have found the increase of fair bait to be very nearly as the squares of the distances. More foolishness, as the "meditation" seems to be just an excuse to have the Poet dig the worms. He certainly wasn't meditating when the Poet arrived. Note that it does not seem to interrupt the Hermit's meditation to provide a commentary about earthworms and careful instructions about how to find them. Finally, the last sentence is meaningless mock scientific language.
Hermit alone. Let me see; where was I? Methinks I was nearly in this frame of mind; the world lay about at this angle. Shall I go to heaven or a-fishing? If I should soon bring this meditation to an end, would another so sweet occasion be likely to offer? I was as near being resolved into the essence of things as ever I was in my life. I fear my thoughts will not come back to me. If it would do any good, I would whistle for them. When they make us an offer, is it wise to say, We will think of it? My thoughts have left no track, and I cannot find the path again. What was it that I was thinking of? It was a very hazy day. I will just try these three sentences of Con-fut-see; they may fetch that state about again. I know not whether it was the dumps or a budding ecstasy. Mem. There never is but one opportunity of a kind. Of course, the "meditation" turns out to be just some more nonsense rattling around in his head. His claim that he was near the "essence of life" is ironic since we know what he was actually thinking. Can you imagine whistling to get your thoughts back? The Confucian statements are unimpressive, one of them evidently being "memorandum."
Poet. How now, Hermit, is it too soon? I have got just thirteen whole ones, beside several which are imperfect or undersized; but they will do for the smaller fry; they do not cover up the hook so much. Those village worms are quite too large; a shiner may make a meal off one without finding the skewer. Fish can learn the trick of eating the worm off of the hook without getting impaled; one solution is to use a smaller worm.
Hermit. Well, then, let's be off. Shall we to the Concord? There's good sport there if the water be not too high. The Hermit is perfectly willing to abandon his meditation when the earthworms appear.
Why do precisely these objects which we behold make a world? Why has man just these species of animals for his neighbors; as if nothing but a mouse could have filled this crevice? I suspect that Pilpay & Co. have put animals to their best use, for they are all beasts of burden, in a sense, made to carry some portion of our thoughts. Some pre-evolutionary questions about animals which Darwin helped answer. Pilpay or Bidpai was an Arabic version of a lost Sanskrit collection of animal fables. The "& Co[mpany]" suggests that Thoreau is not being serious.
The mice which haunted my house were not the common ones, which are said to have been introduced into the country, but a wild native kind not found in the village. I sent one to a distinguished naturalist, and it interested him much. When I was building, one of these had its nest underneath the house, and before I had laid the second floor, and swept out the shavings, would come out regularly at lunch time and pick up the crumbs at my feet. It probably had never seen a man before; and it soon became quite familiar, and would run over my shoes and up my clothes. It could readily ascend the sides of the room by short impulses, like a squirrel, which it resembled in its motions. At length, as I leaned with my elbow on the bench one day, it ran up my clothes, and along my sleeve, and round and round the paper which held my dinner, while I kept the latter close, and dodged and played at bo-peep with it; and when at last I held still a piece of cheese between my thumb and finger, it came and nibbled it, sitting in my hand, and afterward cleaned its face and paws, like a fly, and walked away. The House Mouse, Norway Rat, and Black Rat were introduced into the country from ships and make their homes in our homes, farms, warehouses, and factories. The native mice and rats, which are not closely related, have quite different characteristics, do not usually cause economic harm, and are not responsible for the spread of disease. Thoreau's mouse was the White-Footed Mouse, which will sometimes build its nest in a human dwelling.

Thoreau sent specimens to Louis Agassiz, a famous Swiss scientist at Harvard, who later argued against evolution.

A phoebe soon built in my shed, and a robin for protection in a pine which grew against the house. In June the partridge (Tetrao umbellus), which is so shy a bird, led her brood past my windows, from the woods in the rear to the front of my house, clucking and calling to them like a hen, and in all her behavior proving herself the hen of the woods. The young suddenly disperse on your approach, at a signal from the mother, as if a whirlwind had swept them away, and they so exactly resemble the dried leaves and twigs that many a traveler has placed his foot in the midst of a brood, and heard the whir of the old bird as she flew off, and her anxious calls and mewing, or seen her trail her mings to attract his attention, without suspecting their neighborhood. The parent will sometimes roll and spin round before you in such a dishabille, that you cannot, for a few moments, detect what kind of creature it is. The young squat still and flat, often running their heads under a leaf, and mind only their mother's directions given from a distance, nor will your approach make them run again and betray themselves. You may even tread on them, or have your eyes on them for a minute, without discovering them. I have held them in my open hand at such a time, and still their only care, obedient to their mother and their instinct, was to squat there without fear or trembling. So perfect is this instinct, that once, when I had laid them on the leaves again, and one accidentally fell on its side, it was found with the rest in exactly the same position ten minutes afterward. They are not callow like the young of most birds, but more perfectly developed and precocious even than chickens. The remarkably adult yet innocent expression of their open and serene eyes is very memorable. All intelligence seems reflected in them. They suggest not merely the purity of infancy, but a wisdom clarified by experience. Such an eye was not born when the bird was, but is coeval with the sky it reflects. The woods do not yield another such a gem. The traveller does not often look into such a limpid well. The ignorant or reckless sportsman often shoots the parent at such a time, and leaves these innocents to fall a prey to some prowling beast or bird, or gradually mingle with the decaying leaves which they so much resemble. It is said that when hatched by a hen they will directly disperse on some alarm, and so are lost, for they never hear the mother's call which gathers them again. These were my hens and chickens. Phobes and robins like to nest near people, but the Ruffled Grouse, which Thoreau calls a partridge, does not. I have encountered them on a number of occasions in Canada. The mother bird always acts as if she has been seriously injuried while keeping just beyond reach, and the young disappear as Thoreau reports. Once I encountered half a dozen birds and their chicks all in one place, and there was mass confusion, with "dead" chicks all over the ground and "wounded" mothers escaping in every direction.

Thoreau's observations of the chicks is especially good.

That these birds would be found near his hut is further proof that the area around the pond was much more cleared then than now. The grouses live in the fields, not the woods.

It is remarkable how many creatures live wild and free though secret in the woods, and still sustain themselves in the neighborhood of towns, suspected by hunters only. How retired the otter manages to live here! He grows to be four feet long, as big as a small boy, perhaps without any human being getting a glimpse of him. I formerly saw the raccoon in the woods behind where my house is built, and probably still heard their whinnering at night. Commonly I rested an hour or two in the shade at noon, after planting, and ate my lunch, and read a little by a spring which was the source of a swamp and of a brook, oozing from under Brister's Hill, half a mile from my field. The approach to this was through a succession of descending grassy hollows, full of young pitch pines, into a larger wood about the swamp. There, in a very secluded and shaded spot, under a spreading white pine, there was yet a clean, firm sward to sit on. I had dug out the spring and made a well of clear gray water, where I could dip up a pailful without roiling it, and thither I went for this purpose almost every day in midsummer, when the pond was warmest. Thither, too, the woodcock led her brood, to probe the mud for worms, flying but a foot above them down the bank, while they ran in a troop beneath; but at last, spying me, she would leave her young and circle round and round me, nearer and nearer till within four or five feet, pretending broken wings and legs, to attract my attention, and get off her young, who would already have taken up their march, with faint, wiry peep, single file through the swamp, as she directed. Or I heard the peep of the young when I could not see the parent bird. There too the turtle doves sat over the spring, or fluttered from bough to bough of the soft white pines over my head; or the red squirrel, coursing down the nearest bough, was particularly familiar and inquisitive. You only need sit still long enough in some attractive spot in the woods that all its inhabitants may exhibit themselves to you by turns. A number of nocturnal wild animals have successfully adapted to the proximity of humans and continue their lives as before. I have seen both raccoons (note Thoreau's odd plural) and opossums in cities.

"Roiling" means without disturbing the sediment.

I was witness to events of a less peaceful character. One day when I went out to my wood-pile, or rather my pile of stumps, I observed two large ants, the one red, the other much larger, nearly half an inch long, and black, fiercely contending with one another. Having once got hold they never let go, but struggled and wrestled and rolled on the chips incessantly. Looking farther, I was surprised to find that the chips were covered with such combatants, that it was not a duellum, but a bellum, a war between two races of ants, the red always pitted against the black, and frequently two red ones to one black. The legions of these Myrmidons covered all the hills and vales in my woodyard, and the ground was already strewn with the dead and dying, both red and black. It was the only battle which I have ever witnessed, the only battle-field I ever trod while the battle was raging; internecine war; the red republicans on the one hand, and the black imperialists on the other. On every side they were engaged in deadly combat, yet without any noise that I could hear, and human soldiers never fought so resolutely. I watched a couple that were fast locked in each other's embraces, in a little sunny valley amid the chips, now at noonday prepared to fight till the sun went down, or life went out. The smaller red champion had fastened himself like a vice to his adversary's front, and through all the tumblings on that field never for an instant ceased to gnaw at one of his feelers near the root, having already caused the other to go by the board; while the stronger black one dashed him from side to side, and, as I saw on looking nearer, had already divested him of several of his members. They fought with more pertinacity than bulldogs. Neither manifested the least disposition to retreat. It was evident that their battle-cry was "Conquer or die." In the meanwhile there came along a single red ant on the hillside of this valley, evidently full of excitement, who either had despatched his foe, or had not yet taken part in the battle; probably the latter, for he had lost none of his limbs; whose mother had charged him to return with his shield or upon it. Or perchance he was some Achilles, who had nourished his wrath apart, and had now come to avenge or rescue his Patroclus. He saw this unequal combat from afar, -- for the blacks were nearly twice the size of the red, -- he drew near with rapid pace till be stood on his guard within half an inch of the combatants; then, watching his opportunity, he sprang upon the black warrior, and commenced his operations near the root of his right fore leg, leaving the foe to select among his own members; and so there were three united for life, as if a new kind of attraction had been invented which put all other locks and cements to shame. I should not have wondered by this time to find that they had their respective musical bands stationed on some eminent chip, and playing their national airs the while, to excite the slow and cheer the dying combatants. I was myself excited somewhat even as if they had been men. The more you think of it, the less the difference. And certainly there is not the fight recorded in Concord history, at least, if in the history of America, that will bear a moment's comparison with this, whether for the numbers engaged in it, or for the patriotism and heroism displayed. For numbers and for carnage it was an Austerlitz or Dresden. Concord Fight! Two killed on the patriots' side, and Luther Blanchard wounded! Why here every ant was a Buttrick, -- "Fire! for God's sake fire!" -- and thousands shared the fate of Davis and Hosmer. There was not one hireling there. I have no doubt that it was a principle they fought for, as much as our ancestors, and not to avoid a three-penny tax on their tea; and the results of this battle will be as important and memorable to those whom it concerns as those of the battle of Bunker Hill, at least. When visiting the pond, I was pleased to encounter the descendents of Thoreau's ants. Athough Thoreau assumes the role of the impartial observer, his account does not provide any scientific insight (actually the red ants were the aggressors, seeking the black ants' eggs for slaves) but instead compares the wars of ants to those of men, especially the Trojan War, Napoleon's battles, and the American Revolution.

The Myrmidons were the troops who sailed with Achilles to Troy, and legends say they were created from ants. Spartan mothers expected their sons to return victorious ("with their shields") or dead ("upon them"). Achilles felt mistreated and refused to fight until his friend Patroclus was killed in his stead. "By the board" is naval war language, meaning "overboard." Dresden and Austerlitz were especially bloody Napoleanic battles, and Davis and Hosmer were killed in the battle at Concord, where Buttrick commanded.

By focusing on three ants, Thoreau can draw parallels to individuals. His description of the arrival of the third sounds like some hero arriving at the battle, although that which follows is not heroic. In Le Morte d'Arthur, the heavily armored champions would hack at each other all day long.

Anyone unaware of Thoreau's purpose should be alerted by the comment about ants playing music on the battlefield. During the Revolution, the British included marching bands in with the troops, as Thoreau ironically states, "to excite the slow and cheer the dying." Would music cheer you up if you were dying? More likely the music was to cover up the screams of the wounded.

Note that Thoreau implies the ants were more patriotic and heroic than the Americans, and makes the sarcastic comment that they fought for a principle "as much as our ancestors, and not to avoid a three-penny tax on their tea."

I took up the chip on which the three I have particularly described were struggling, carried it into my house, and placed it under a tumbler on my window-sill, in order to see the issue. Holding a microscope to the first-mentioned red ant, I saw that, though he was assiduously gnawing at the near fore leg of his enemy, having severed his remaining feeler, his own breast was all torn away, exposing what vitals he had there to the jaws of the black warrior, whose breastplate was apparently too thick for him to pierce; and the dark carbuncles of the sufferer's eyes shone with ferocity such as war only could excite. They struggled half an hour longer under the tumbler, and when I looked again the black soldier had severed the heads of his foes from their bodies, and the still living heads were hanging on either side of him like ghastly trophies at his saddle-bow, still apparently as firmly fastened as ever, and he was endeavoring with feeble struggles, being without feelers and with only the remnant of a leg, and I know not how many other wounds, to divest himself of them; which at length, after half an hour more, he accomplished. I raised the glass, and he went off over the window-sill in that crippled state. Whether he finally survived that combat, and spent the remainder of his days in some Hotel des Invalides, I do not know; but I thought that his industry would not be worth much thereafter. I never learned which party was victorious, nor the cause of the war; but I felt for the rest of that day as if I had had my feelings excited and harrowed by witnessing the struggle, the ferocity and carnage, of a human battle before my door. Thoreau next more tightly focuses on his three individuals. Although he seems to be scientific and detached, his comments are worded to engage our emotions. "The dark carbuncles of the sufferer's eyes shone with ferocity such as war only could excite" is not the least bit objective or scientific. The "still living heads were hanging on either side of him like ghastly trophies at his saddle-bow" again depends on human parallels, as ants have no saddles or bows.

Although Thoreau seems unduly sympathetic, he makes no attempt to help the disabled get home. Further statements make no sense applied to ants: the suggestion that the ant might spend his last days at a rest home, speculation as to whether it could work again, and the comments that Thoreau never learned the cause or outcome of the war.

Kirby and Spence tell us that the battles of ants have long been celebrated and the date of them recorded, though they say that Huber is the only modern author who appears to have witnessed them. "Aeneas Sylvius," say they, "after giving a very circumstantial account of one contested with great obstinacy by a great and small species on the trunk of a pear tree," adds that "'this action was fought in the pontificate of Eugenius the Fourth, in the presence of Nicholas Pistoriensis, an eminent lawyer, who related the whole, history of the battle with the greatest fidelity.' A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds. This event happened previous to the expulsion of the tyrant Christiern the Second from Sweden." The battle which I witnessed took place in the Presidency of Polk, five years before the passage of Webster's Fugitive-Slave Bill. "Kirby and Spence" was a four volume source of entomological information. Huber was the famous blind entomologist.

Thoreau describes the time of this battle imitating the previous methods, although a date would had been more useful. He adds a twist, however, in giving credit to Daniel Webster for the Fugitive Slave Bill. Webster did not sponsor the bill but did vote for it as part of a compromise. This law required that slaves which had escaped to the North be returned to their owners, which outraged all those opposed to slavery.

Many a village Bose, fit only to course a mud-turtle in a victualling cellar, sported his heavy quarters in the woods, without the knowledge of his master, and ineffectually smelled at old fox burrows and woodchucks' holes; led perchance by some slight cur which nimbly threaded the wood, and might still inspire a natural terror in its denizens; -- now far behind his guide, barking like a canine bull toward some small squirrel which had treed itself for scrutiny, then, cantering off, bending the bushes with his weight, imagining that he is on the track of some stray member of the jerbilla family. Once I was surprised to see a cat walking along the stony shore of the pond, for they rarely wander so far from home. The surprise was mutual. Nevertheless the most domestic cat, which has lain on a rug all her days, appears quite at home in the woods, and, by her sly and stealthy behavior, proves herself more native there than the regular inhabitants. Once, when berrying, I met with a cat with young kittens in the woods, quite wild, and they all, like their mother, had their backs up and were fiercely spitting at me. A few years before I lived in the woods there was what was called a "winged cat" in one of the farm-houses in Lincoln nearest the pond, Mr. Gilian Baker's. When I called to see her in June, 1842, she was gone a-hunting in the woods, as was her wont (I am not sure whether it was a male or female, and so use the more common pronoun), but her mistress told me that she came into the neighborhood a little more than a year before, in April, and was finally taken into their house; that she was of a dark brownish-gray color, with a white spot on her throat, and white feet, and had a large bushy tail like a fox; that in the winter the fur grew thick and flatted out along her sides, forming stripes ten or twelve inches long by two and a half wide, and under her chin like a muff, the upper side loose, the under matted like felt, and in the spring these appendages dropped off. They gave me a pair of her "wings," which I keep still. There is no appearance of a membrane about them. Some thought it was part flying squirrel or some other wild animal, which is not impossible, for, according to naturalists, prolific hybrids have been produced by the union of the marten and domestic cat. This would have been the right kind of cat for me to keep, if I had kept any; for why should not a poet's cat be winged as well as his horse? Now Thoreau tells about the domestic animals he finds in the woods, some older dogs, unfit for hunting, which show up from time to time, pretending to hunt, and some cats which have adapted to the woods.

Dogs and house cats are commonly dumped out into the woods nowadays, and sometimes they survive for several years, although most starve to death very quickly or die of disease. Martens and cats could not cross-breed.

Dogs and cats roaming the woods (along with the numerous hunters) would greatly diminish the amount of wild life. Thoreau is providing a very short list of wild animals, although he will add a few more (foxes, squirrels, and rabbits) in "Winter Animals." He acknowledges there that the deer have been exterminated.

The winged horse is Pegasus.

In the fall the loon (Colymbus glacialis) came, as usual, to moult and bathe in the pond, making the woods ring with his wild laughter before I had risen. At rumor of his arrival all the Mill-dam sportsmen are on the alert, in gigs and on foot, two by two and three by three, with patent rifles and conical balls and spy-glasses. They come rustling through the woods like autumn leaves, at least ten men to one loon. Some station themselves on this side of the pond, some on that, for the poor bird cannot be omnipresent; if he dive here he must come up there. But now the kind October wind rises, rustling the leaves and rippling the surface of the water, so that no loon can be heard or seen, though his foes sweep the pond with spy-glasses, and make the woods resound with their discharges. The waves generously rise and dash angrily, taking sides with all water-fowl, and our sportsmen must beat a retreat to town and shop and unfinished jobs. But they were too often successful. When I went to get a pail of water early in the morning I frequently saw this stately bird sailing out of my cove within a few rods. If I endeavored to overtake him in a boat, in order to see how he would manoeuvre, he would dive and be completely lost, so that I did not discover him again, sometimes, till the latter part of the day. But I was more than a match for him on the surface. He commonly went off in a rain. The large number of men all hunting for one bird is deliberate irony.
As I was paddling along the north shore one very calm October afternoon, for such days especially they settle on to the lakes, like the milkweed down, having looked in vain over the pond for a loon, suddenly one, sailing out from the shore toward the middle a few rods in front of me, set up his mild laugh and betrayed himself. I pursued with a paddle and he dived, but when he came up I was nearer than before. He dived again, but I miscalculated the direction he would take, and we were fifty rods apart when he came to the surface this time, for I had helped to widen the interval; and again he laughed long and loud, and with more reason than before. He manoeuvred so cunningly that I could not get within half a dozen rods of him. Each time, when he came to the surface, turning his head this way and that, he cooly surveyed the water and the land, and apparently chose his course so that he might come up where there was the widest expanse of water and at the greatest distance from the boat. It was surprising how quickly he made up his mind and put his resolve into execution. He led me at once to the widest part of the pond, and could not be driven from it. While he was thinking one thing in his brain, I was endeavoring to divine his thought in mine. It was a pretty game, played on the smooth surface of the pond, a man against a loon. Suddenly your adversary's checker disappears beneath the board, and the problem is to place yours nearest to where his will appear again. Sometimes he would come up unexpectedly on the opposite side of me, having apparently passed directly under the boat. So long-winded was he and so unweariable, that when he had swum farthest he would immediately plunge again, nevertheless; and then no wit could divine where in the deep pond, beneath the smooth surface, he might be speeding his way like a fish, for he had time and ability to visit the bottom of the pond in its deepest part. It is said that loons have been caught in the New York lakes eighty feet beneath the surface, with hooks set for trout, -- though Walden is deeper than that. How surprised must the fishes be to see this ungainly visitor from another sphere speeding his way amid their schools! Yet he appeared to know his course as surely under water as on the surface, and swam much faster there. Once or twice I saw a ripple where he approached the surface, just put his head out to reconnoitre, and instantly dived again. I found that it was as well for me to rest on my oars and wait his reappearing as to endeavor to calculate where he would rise; for again and again, when I was straining my eyes over the surface one way, I would suddenly be startled by his unearthly laugh behind me. But why, after displaying so much cunning, did he invariably betray himself the moment he came up by that loud laugh? Did not his white breast enough betray him? He was indeed a silly loon, I thought. I could commonly hear the splash of the water when he came up, and so also detected him. But after an hour he seemed as fresh as ever, dived as willingly, and swam yet farther than at first. It was surprising to see how serenely he sailed off with unruffled breast when he came to the surface, doing all the work with his webbed feet beneath. His usual note was this demoniac laughter, yet somewhat like that of a water-fowl; but occasionally, when he had balked me most successfully and come up a long way off, he uttered a long-drawn unearthly howl, probably more like that of a wolf than any bird; as when a beast puts his muzzle to the ground and deliberately howls. This was his looning, -- perhaps the wildest sound that is ever heard here, making the woods ring far and wide. I concluded that he laughed in derision of my efforts, confident of his own resources. Though the sky was by this time overcast, the pond was so smooth that I could see where he broke the surface when I did not hear him. His white breast, the stillness of the air, and the smoothness of the water were all against him. At length having come up fifty rods off, he uttered one of those prolonged howls, as if calling on the god of loons to aid him, and immediately there came a wind from the east and rippled the surface, and filled the whole air with misty rain, and I was impressed as if it were the prayer of the loon answered, and his god was angry with me; and so I left him disappearing far away on the tumultuous surface. A fascinating story! It seems that the loon must have been enjoying the game.

According to my bird book, the loon has been known to dive as deep as 200 feet!

One of the faults that the critical hunt for among the writings of Nature writers is the pathetic fallacy, the notion that plants can think or that animals can have human thoughts. It seems to me that a wild animal could enjoy playing a game with a person since domestic animals do that all the time. But could an animal utter a prayer to his god? Of course not, but is Thoreau saying that is what happened? He carefully adds "as if" to each statement.

For hours, in fall days, I watched the ducks cunningly tack and veer and hold the middle of the pond, far from the sportsman; tricks which they will have less need to practise in Louisiana bayous. When compelled to rise they would sometimes circle round and round and over the pond at a considerable height, from which they could easily see to other ponds and the river, like black motes in the sky; and, when I thought they had gone off thither long since, they would settle down by a slanting flight of a quarter of a mile on to a distant part which was left free; but what beside safety they got by sailing in the middle of Walden I do not know, unless they love its water for the same reason that I do. Now, this passage gives us a more difficult question about the pathetic fallacy. Can ducks love the water of Walden Pond for the same reason that Thoreau does? And if they can't, is this an example of the pathetic fallacy or just a case of oversimplification?
Thoreau's Text in This Column
My Comments in This Column
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