[Ken Kifer's Bike Pages]
DIRECTORY: Cycling Health and Fitness
Our sedentary lifestyle leads to cardiovascular disease, stroke, diabetes, and overweight. Bicycling as a regular aerobic exercise leads to a healthy body and helps prevent disease and a shortened lifespan.

What kinds of health problems are getting worse? Why? How can we help prevent heart disease, stroke, and type II diabetes? What are some good exercises? Why is cycling a good exercise? How does it compare to walking? Isn't cycling too dangerous? How hard do we need to exercise? How often should we exercise? What kinds of problems can we encounter in cycling? How will our bodies adapt to exercise?


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Cycling Health and Fitness

People follow three paths to good health: doctor, diet, and exercise. Our path to the doctor involves the greatest expense, $1,035 billion in 1996, or almost 1/7th of the Gross National Product. Over 60% of these visits involved medication, and there were over 70 million surgeries (source CDC). However, there would be less expense, trauma, and tragedy if we prevented many of these medical problems. According to the American Medical Association, 60% of Americans are physically inactive. According to U.S. Surgeon General David Satcher, the number of people at risk of diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and stroke is increasing, and 50% of Americans are overweight. He said that improved nutrition along with 30 minutes of exercise five times a week could reduce cardiovascular illnesses and deaths by 50% and colorectal cancer by 40% (source CNN, June 11, 1999).

Unfortunately, those who decide to respond to health alerts tend to go overboard on nutrition and to adopt the wrong exercises. Rather than exotic nutrients, we need a diet consisting mainly of grains, fruits, and vegetables, with reduced amounts of meat and cheese. Rather than weight­lifting, TV "aerobics," and ab crunching, we need true aerobic exercises that help strengthen the heart, such as fast walking, cycling, jogging, swimming, rollerblading, skating, and cross­country skiing. The best exercise to change our sedentary habits is the one we can and will do nearly every day.

Bicycling has several advantages over other exercises:

  1. Cycling exercises the heart better than walking without the pounding of jogging.
  2. One can ride a bicycle almost anywhere, at any time of the year, and at low cost.
  3. Little or no time has to be lost, as bike travel can be used to get to work, perform errands, or enjoy the outdoors.
  4. Commuting by bike reduces pollution that causes asthma and bronchitis. A commuting cyclist is also less exposed to air pollution than a commuting motorist.

On the down side, cycling does involve some risk of injury which has been greatly exaggerated by fearmongers. Cycling actually has similar risks to traveling by automobile. The British Medical Association has estimated that the health benefits of cycling outweigh the risks by twenty to one.

One very interesting question is how much aerobic exercise should one get every day? Some medical authorities recommend as little as 20 minutes a day, three times a week, while others recommend 2,000 kCal, which would be at least four times that amount. Why the great difference? Well, most authorities recognize the more exercise the better up to some undetermined point, but many are afraid that if they expect too much, people won't exercise at all. Another reason for lowering the recommendation was due to the damage caused by jogging, a problem cycling does not share. I am afraid that those setting very low requirements are giving people the mistaken impression that they don't need any more exercise than their usual, basically sedentary activity.

How much exercise do I recommend? I find that 45 minutes of cycling six days a week (about 2,000 kCal) keeps me feeling good, but not great, two hours per day keeps me very strong and controls my weight, and six hours a day on my bicycle trips makes me feel like superman after several weeks. We might say that lower amounts of exercise improve one's health and higher amounts improve one's fitness. I would recommend a minumum of 45 minutes a day and as much addition cycling as time permits. The time spent cycling will not be wasted; in addition to having a good ride, the cyclist will be more productive during the remaining time and will live longer as well.

Articles on Cycling Fitness and Health

Ken Kifer on Fitness   After a brief discussion of the fitness controversy today, I present my own understanding, using personal history and observations rather than statistics to support my statements. I support the idea that fitness is best achieved and maintained through regular cycling at moderate speeds rather than through intense effort.

A Review of Pedalling Health   Pedalling Health is an Australian web site with important statistical data about how cycling promotes good health. The site answers some questions about the amount and intensity of exercise needed to promote good health. (Note: "Pedalling" is a British spelling.)

Is Cycling Dangerous?   How the belief that cycling is dangerous can lead to deaths through discouraging vehicular cycling, why sidewalks are more dangerous than streets, the most common causes of bicycle-motor vehicle crashes, why cycling is actually less dangerous than motoring, the fatality rate among cyclists, the much greater number of other injury-related deaths, the chances of injury compared with common sports, and the much more common dangers of heart disease, stroke, and diabetes.

The Healthy Diet for Cyclists (or Anybody)  A healthy diet does not need to involve any unusual foods or strange menus. However, only one person in ten eats properly. Most people eat too much meat and not enough grains, legumes, fruits, and vegetables.

The High Fat, Low Carbohydrate Diet vs. Bicycling for Good Health  Dr. Atkins and others recommend diets with extremely low carbohydrate and high fat levels. Some people lose weight on these diets. However, the theory behind them is flawed, and they create serious health problems. Bicycling and a balanced diet is a better solution.

Southern Stroke Belt!   A report in the newspaper pointed out that strokes are much higher in the South and said that scientists were baffled about the cause. I wasn't baffled at all; our lifestyle and our lifespan are firmly tied together. A lack of aerobic exercise and too much fat in the diet are the cause.

Ways of Being Tired   Not paying attention to fatigue can lead to a spoiled bicycle trip or even much more dangerous consequences. It's not enough to know that you're tired; you have to know how you are tired.

Stages of Fitness   Answering a question in the newsgroups about dieting, I describe how cyclists' bodies adapt to the demands we place upon them depending on our level of fitness.

My Fall -- The Story of a Bicycling Injury and Recovery   While riding my bike, I fell and broke my hip. Here are the details of how the accident occurred and how I recovered.


Pedalling Health   Medical research reveals sound reasons for cycling on a regular basis. Besides showing the value of exercise, this web site demonstrates that cycling is superior to walking as an exercise.

American Medical Association   I am going to quit citing specific pages for the AMA, as the site keeps removing them. Use the search function to find the topics you wish.

The British Medical Journal  This site is more user friendly and has more articles related to cycling as well.

The New England Journal of Medicine  A good source of articles, although you will not be allowed to read all of them.

Why Promote Cycling?  This letter of mine was published in the British Medical Journal, along with others.

Modalshift.org -- The Oxon Cycling Report Dr. Harry Rutter has completed a study of the health advantages of increasing bicycling traffic in Oxfordshire, England. The report also summarizes progress made so far to encourage cycling throughout England. This is a clear discussion, with charts, facts and figures, and sources.

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